Sunday, August 31, 2014

A Chicken's Labor Day





Make the Perfect Perch For Your Chickens

Sitting Pretty

Perches provide a secure place for your chickens to rest at night and they have the added benefit of keeping chickens off the floor where they can be soiled by droppings.



Mabel, my feet are killing me!

Most books on coop design tell poultry owners to provide at least 10 inches of perch space for each bird in the flock. However, books generally don't specify the diameter or the shape of the perch. This isn't too surprising because there hasn't been any research done on the subject until very recently.  


In 2011, a group of poultry researchers in Germany conducted a series of experiments. Their objective was to evaluate various various perch designs in order to eliminate health problems that have been traced to perching -- specifically skin legions and bone deformities. 


To do the research, they used sensors to measure the pressure exerted by the perch on a chickens foot pads and keel bone (breast bone). They measured the pressure when the chicken was:



  1. Standing as a chicken often do during the day.
  2. Sitting as a chicken does at night when sleeping. 
Standing & Sitting Place Pressure on Different Body Parts

In the former case, all of the pressure from the perch would be exerted on the chickens feet. In the latter case, the pressure would be distributed between the chickens feet and its keel bone. The best perch sizes and shapes would exert the least amount of pressure in these places.

For the test, the researchers looked at round, square, and oval perch shapes with diameters ranging from 34 to 60 millimeters (1.3 to 2.4 inches) per the below diagram.


Perch Shapes and Sizes
Research Results

Good news and bad news.....  There wasn't one best shape, it depended:



  • Oval-shaped perches performed best when chicken's were standing. 
  • However, when a chickens is seated, the square perch performs better because it exerts less pressure on the chicken's keel bone.
Recommendation - It's Hip to Be Square!

In a commercial poultry house, chickens may have limited access to the outdoors and may spend most of their waking hours standing on a perch. The performance of the perch when a chicken is standing matters to a commercial operator. 


However, this is less true for us backyard chicken owners. Most of our birds aren't locked into a coop all day so the amount of time they spend standing on a perch is more limited. 


It's during the evening that our chickens return to the coop to go to bed. When they roost at night, they occupy a seated position. Therefore, we would recommend choosing a square shaped perch as this seems more relevant to the lifestyle of a backyard chicken. 
According to the German study, one with a diameter of about 44mm (1.7 inches) is best. 

We'll Take the Center Square
In the U.S. you can't buy lumber that is exactly 44mm x 44mm so you have two choices: 


  1. Buy lumber that is nominally 2 inches x 2 inches (The actual dimensions of this are 38 mm x 38 mm). This would still be a decent compromise choice and you don't have to do any cutting. Just hang the perch.
  2.  Buy what is nominally a 4 inch x 4 inch board (89mm x 89mm actual size) and cut it down to 44mm x 44 mm. You can do this yourself if you have a table saw. Some lumber yards will cut a piece to size for you for a small fee if you don't want to mess with it yourself.


Whatever option works best for you, you should round off the edges so that they are not sharp and won't cut your chickens feet.


Source: Pressure load on keel bone and foot pads in perching laying hens in relatioin to perch design. T. Pickel, L. Schrader and B. Scholz, Institute of Animal Welfare and Animal Husbandry, University of Muenster, as published in Poultry Science, 2011, p. 715-724. 



Sunday, August 24, 2014

Rhode Island Red Chicken History & Breed Profile

"Practical, Prolific, Profitable" that's how the Rhode Island Red (RIR) was described in the 1890's by Isaac Champlin Wilbour, an important early promoter of the breed. Wilbour's description of the breed is as true today as it was back then; RIR's are wonderful dual purpose chickens that lays 200-300 large brown eggs per year.



History of the Rhode Island Red

The chicken that we are familiar with today resulted from a series of breeding experiments begun by William Tripp in 1854. Tripp was a sea captain and made routine visits to the coastal town of New Bedford, Rhode Island. 
Captain William Tripp Bred Chickens That Became The Rhode Island Red
It was on one of these visits that Tripp met a sailor arriving from England with a red Malaysian rooster. Struck by its unusual appearance, T
ripp purchased the rooster and allowed it to breed with the hens in his flock. 
Malay Chicken
Tripp noticed that the offspring of these matings produced chickens that laid more eggs and produced better tasting meat. Intrigued, he began a cross breeding program to improve these qualities with a friend John Macomber. Tripp and Macomber crossed the birds with Brahma and other breeds, exchanging birds with each other to minimize inbreeding. 

As the resulting chickens improved, they caught the attention of local farmers who were interested in purchasing what was then called either "The Macomber" or the "Tripp's Fowl." One enterprising farmer who made such a purchase was Isaac Champlin Wilbour of Little Compton, Rhode Island.
Isaac Champlin Wilbour Developed and Named the Rhode Island Red

Wilbour already had a poultry business selling eggs he produced. Looking for ways to improve his own flock, he purchased a number of "Tripp's Fowl" and began his own cross breeding program. According to his grandson David Patten, Wilbour was looking to create an improved dual purpose chicken:
"What he was after was a better all-purpose bird; an improved utility fowl that would lay more eggs, bigger and browner eggs for the Boston and Providence markets, and larger bodies to provide more meat. He seems to have had no desire to breed show birds, but wanted the hardiest kind of stock that would prosper under any conditions, including those of a rigorous New England winter." -- David Patten

Wilbour's business prospered and by the 1890's he had the largest poultry operation in the United States.  The 200 acre farm was outfitted with seventy-five 8' x 12'  chicken houses that accommodated between 3,000-4,000 laying hens. 

Poultry Houses Typical of the Type Built in Little Compton during the 19th Century

Wilbour's Home Today. Photo by Magnus Manske.
Wilbour's improved chickens and successful business came to the attention of two professors at the U.S. Agricultural Experiment Station in Kingston, Rhode Island. One of them, Samuel Cushman, recognized that Wilbour had developed a new breed and asked if he had a name for it. Wilbour thought for a second and said "Why wouldn't Rhode Island Reds do?" As other breeders added the breed to their flock, the name stuck.  

Interestingly, RIR's at that time were not the deep reddish-brown color that we associate with the breed today and there was also considerable variability in the type of comb with some RIR's having single, rose and pea combs.  In fact, there was still quite a bit of variability in their overall appearance.

"My memory furnishes the picture of one or two red roosters with shining greenish black tail feathers and of hens of a lightish buff with lacings of black. The roosters, and  particularly the hens, had not been brought to the red that distinguishes the breed today and there was certainly nothing resembling the mahogany red of the present show birds." -- David Patten

It was up to later breeders such as Lester Tompkins of nearby Adamsville, Rhode Island to breed the show birds that helped standardize the RIR's color and other traits.

Honoring the RIR

In 1925, The Rhode Island Red Club of America dedicated a monument to the breed in Little Compton. The plaque is pictured below.  

"TO COMMEMORATE THE BIRTHPLACE OF THE RHODE ISLAND RED BREEDING FOWL WHICH WAS ORIGINATED NEAR THIS LOCATION. RED FOWLS WERE BRED EXTENSIVELY BY THE FARMERS OF THIS DISTRICT AND LATER NAMED 'RHODE ISLAND REDS' AND BROUGHT INTO NATIONAL PROMINENCE BY THE POULTRY FANCIERS. THIS TABLET IS PLACED BY THE RHODE ISLAND RED CLUB OF AMERICA WITH CONTRIBUTIONS OF RHODE ISLAND RED BREEDERS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD ON LAND DONATED BY DEBORAH T. MANCHESTER. 1925"

In 1954, the RIR celebrated its 100th anniversary. To mark the occasion, Governor Dennis Roberts signed a bill making the RIR the official state bird of Rhode Island.  

In 1982, the RIR appeared as one of 50 state birds featured in a commemorative stamp series. At the time of their issue, this was the most popular series in U.S. postal history.



Rhode Island Reds Today

The Rhode Island Red is one of the most successful dual purpose breeds ever created. It fame and distribution spread across the United States and around the globe. Although RIR's tend to be broody, the breed has many excellent characteristics which make it a good choice for backyard chicken farmers and homesteaders.  These include:

  • Dual purpose
  • High egg production (200-300 per year)
  • Egg size & color: Large/Brown
  • Cold & heat tolerant
  • Docile
  • Weight: Hens-6.5 lbs. Roosters- 8.5lbs.

However, after World War II, the RIR was selectively bred for increased egg production, greater feed efficiency and lower broodiness.  Today's "industrial" RIR's tend to be lighter in color and also smaller in size than the heritage RIR of bygone days.

If you own a RIR that you purchased from a feed store or hatchery, chances are that you own one of newer industrial strain. These can be nice chickens, but because they are bred for their ability to develop rapidly they are more prone to cardiovascular diseases and bone defects. They are less well adapted to living outdoors and their lifespan is often shorter. 

The heritage RIR is comparatively rare these days and is listed as a "recovering breed" by the Livestock Conservancy. If you are interested in purchasing heritage birds, check the Internet for local breeders or contact the Rhode Island Red club of America.

Sources:
The Rhode Island Red 1854-1954; A Centennial History of the Rhode Island Red Breed of Poultry, 1954.
Annual Reports, Rhode Island. Agricultural Experiment Station 1899. Twelth Annual Report, Part II.
Rhode Island Red Commemorative Monument, www.Quahog.org.


California Girls


Monday, July 28, 2014

Bacon Lettuce Tomato Sandwich Recipe


Cook will tell you that the secret to making delicious food is to use the best and freshest ingredients you can get.  A BLT is no exception to this general rule.  Our family converts a typical bacon lettuce and tomato sandwich to the "Ultimate BLT" by kicking the ingredients up a notch. Now you can too...
  • Tomatoes - Let's be candid, most tomatoes from the supermarket are hard and tasteless; they don't add much to a BLT.  But if you use a homegrown tomato, you have an entirely different experience because the sweet of the tomato compliments and balances the salty-fatty taste of the bacon.  If you are like us, you now have an abundance of amazing tomatoes from your garden.  Use these and your BLT just improved ten fold. If you don't have homegrown get them at the farmers market or local farm stand. Our favorite tomatoes varieties are Paul Robeson, Japanese Trifele and Brandywine but get what you like.
    Paul Robeson Tomato
  • Lettuce - you can use any variety in your garden, but we tend to like greens that are a bit spicy. The adults in the family generally use arugula in place of lettuce, but for the kids we use a wonderful sweet variety called Jericho.  I suppose a Bacon, Arugula and Tomato sandwich should probably be called a "BAT" not a BLT but it works for us.
  • Bacon - Bacon is God's gift to us.  We actually cure and smoke our own bacon using the recipe on the PlanterTomato blog. The bacon is smoked with hickory, alder or cherry wood. All are great. Granted, curing your own bacon is a bit over the top. If you don't have time or patience for this, just go to the store and get the best bacon you can buy. When you cook your bacon, do so over medium heat so you don't overcook it.  (Burnt bacon tastes wretched and you and your sandwich deserve better.)
  • The Staff of Life - You can use white bread to make BLT's, but a tastier approach is to use a fresh baked bread like a ciabatta, batard or boule.  Don't worry if you don't recognize these names;  they are just different styles of bread with crusty tops similar to French bread.  We buy our bread at our from the store because we've found that commercial bakers do a better job than what we can at baking these loaves.  High quality, fresh bread is becoming more widely available these days and many of the better supermarkets now bake it on the premises or source it from a local artisanal baker.  If you have the option, use a nice crusty top bread to make your BLT's.
  • Mayo - Slather it on.  Yes we know it high in fat.  For Pete's sake, live a little.



Do Chickens Sweat?

Warm blooded animals regulate their body temperature through a process called evaporative cooling. For us humans, the primary means of keeping our body temperature under control is by sweating.  

Specifically, the brain triggers a response that causes our pores to release water molecules that then pool on the surface of our skin. These water molecules are in constant motion and the relative speed of their motion is directly related to their temperature. 


Sweat is relatively hot water and so the water molecules that form on the surface of our skin are ones that are moving rapidly compared to the external environment. In fact, these water molecules are moving so quickly that they bump into one another and some are propelled off the surface of the skin in the form of water vapor. When this happens, the evaporating water molecules literally carry their heat with them into the air leaving the skin cooler. 

No Sweat

Chickens also use evaporative cooling to rid their bodies  of heat, but the evaporative cooling is accomplished in a different way. Chickens lack sweat glands, so they drive off excess heat by evaporating water located on the surface tissue of their lungs.  

Anyone who  has ever owned a dog will immediately recognize how this is accomplished because dogs and chickens both cool themselves by panting. 

Air is drawn int the chickens lungs where the heat exchange is accomplished and then the chicken exhales the warm moist air, thereby lowering it's body temperature. Check out the below video of one very hot chicken.




Chickens & Heat Stress

A chicken's body temperature is normally around 107 degrees Fahrenheit. A chicken can usually regulate it's body temperature effectively as long as the outdoor temperature is ten degrees below body temperature. 

However, once the outside temperature climbs above 95 degrees, a chicken runs the risk of heat stress. The risk is even higher on humid days because evaporative cooling becomes less effective. This is because humid air is so saturated with water that it is becomes difficult for the chicken to transfer water within its lungs to the air. 
In other words, panting becomes less effective when the air is wet. (By the way, the same is true for humans and our ability to sweat. This is why a 95 degree day in a humid environment like Miami is so much more uncomfortable than a 95 degree day in a dry environment like Phoenix)



Here are the warning signs that your chickens are experiencing heat stress:


  • Egg laying stops
  • Labored breathing
  • Listlessness
  • Outstretched legs and wings
Preventing Heat Stress & Dehydration
  • To help prevent heat stress and dehydration, make sure you give your chickens plenty of cool water. This is your first and most important line of defence.
  • Supplement your chickens normal dry feed diet with , moist foods. Tuna fish, green vegetables and fruits etc. A number of chicken owners I know will actually give their chickens a chilled watermelon on very hot days. 
  • Add electrolytes to the water - Electrolytes are minerals that help a chicken replace and retain fluids. You can buy premade electrolytes for chickens from your local feed store or mix your own.  In her book, The Chicken Health Handbook, Gail Damerow provides the following recipe for a home brew electrolyte solution: 2 quarts water, 1/2 teaspoon potassium chloride (salt substitute), 1/2 teaspoon backing soda, 1 teaspoon table salt.
Chickens Driking from The BriteTap Chicken Waterer

Posting sponsored by ChickenWaterer.com, makers of the BriteTap poultry nipple waterer. The BriteTap chicken waterer shields water from dirt and poop. The water stays clean and there are no messy pans for you to wash out. 

Top 3 Tips for Keeping Chickens Cool In Summer


The dog days of summer are here making life uncomfortable for both people and chickens.  Heat can place stress on chickens, so don't be surprised if you see a drop in egg production during the summer. Although you can't control the weather, there are some things that you can do to keep your chickens comfortable and safe during these hot days.

 Here are our top 3 ideas for keeping your chickens cool:


  1.  Ensure Ventilation -  Hopefully, you've built your coup with windows that allow you to increase ventilation in your coop. If this is the case, make sure that the ventilation windows are wide open during the summer. If you plan on leaving the windows open during the evening, make sure that the windows themselves are covered with  durable screening to keep out any predators that may be roaming around your property during the evening. If you are in a particularly hot environment like Texas or Arizona, you may also want to invest in a small fan to help drive hot-air from your coop. However, please note that chickens do not sweat and, therefore, don't benefit from having air blown over them directly. The purpose of the fan is to  keep heat from building up inside the coop.
    Screened vents at top and bottom of coop promote good air circulation
  2. Provide Shade -  If there are no areas in your chicken run or backyard where chickens can go to escape the heat of direct sunlight, we recommend that you set up a sunshade for them.  You can construct a shade with garden stakes, zip ties and either shade cloth or marine grade fabric.  Shade cloth is an outdoor fabric that partially blocks light based on the density of the fabric weave. The denser the weave, the more light that gets blocked. Shade cloth has the advantage of allowing wind to blow through the cloth so it is less likely to tear or be blow loose from the stakes. It can be purchased in a variety of grades to block from 30% to 90% of the sunlight ( see below photo).  
    Shade cloth in various capacities
    Unfortunately, your color choices are fairly limited -- your garden store is likely to only carry black, white and and green shade cloth. Marine grade fabric is a more visually appealing alternative. This is the same fabric used to make outdoor umbrellas and is UV resistant and easy to keep clean. It comes in a very wide variety of colors and in many beautiful patterns. You can purchase it in small quantities from online retailers and local fabric stores. If searching online, look for the "Sunbrella" brand.
    Sunbrella colors and patterns

  3. Plenty of Water -  During the summer months, it's absolutely essential that you provide your flock with a constant source of clean water. If you are using an insulated water water supply tank with your BriteTap chicken waterer, then consider adding some ice to the tank when you fill it each morning. The insulated tank will keep your chicken's water amazingly cool all day, even in extreme conditions. Some owners of the BriteTap chicken waterer tell us that they prefer using a re-usable ice block like the one shown  below in place of ice. The blocks can be placed into the freezer each evening and are ready to go the following morning. There's no need to re-fill ice trays to make new ice.
Posting sponsored by ChickenWaterer.com, makers of the BriteTap poultry nipple waterer. The BriteTap chicken waterer shields water from dirt and poop. The water stays clean and there are no messy pans for you to wash out.